INfocus Winter Sowing

Got the Winter Blues Waiting for the Forever Green Tree Sale … why not get a head start ?

Yes! You can winter sow annuals and perennials. The sowing of seeds in winter is a very old technique. Winter sowing is the process of setting out seeds in containers and leaving them until they emerge in the spring. These containers act as tiny ‘greenhouses’ that protect the seed from the harsher weather but allowing enough cold to help them toughen up over the winter months. Recycled containers work best; some of the most popular include milk jugs, plastic liter bottles aswell as foil-and-plastic take-out containers. Make sure the container can handle freezing and thawing.

Create a Mini Greenhouse

 The example shown is the use of a milk jug that acts as mini greenhouses, allowing the seeds to experience the chill of winter in a controlled environment. When the temperature warms enough, the seeds germinate and start to grow on their own. By the time the soil in the planting beds has warmed, the seedlings are ready to transplant out.
Best Flowering Plants & Herbs for Zone 6
🌿Aconitum carmichaelii (Monkshood)
🌿Alcea (Hollyhock) ‘Camois Rose’ rosy-pink
🌿Alcea ‘Apple Blossom’ pale-pink
🌿Aquilegia (Columbine) ‘Alpina’ blue
🌿Aquilegia ‘Scarlet’ or mixed
🌿Campanula (Bellflower) ‘Champion Pink’
🌿Centaurea cyanus (Bachelor Buttons)
🌿Consolida (Larkspur) ‘Galilee Blue Double’
🌿Delphinium grandiflorum ‘Blue Mirror’
🌿Digitalis purpurea (Wild Foxglove)
🌿Lupinus (Lupine), ‘Russell Hybrids Mix’
🌿Nepeta ‘Pink Dreams’ pink
🌿Oenothera lamarkiana yellow (Evening Primrose)
🌿Platycodon (Balloon Flower) ‘Sentimental Blue’ t
🌿Thymus serpyllum (Creeping Thyme)

In the wild, seed dormancy is usually overcome by the seed spending time in the ground through the winter and having it’s hard seed coat softened up by frost and weathering action. By doing so the seed is undergoing a natural form of “cold stratification” or pretreatment. This cold moist period triggers the seed’s embryo; its growth and subsequent expansion eventually break through the softened seed coat in its search for sun and nutrients. Although there may be a better germination rate if some seeds are started indoors, there are seeds that need to experience cold, damp conditions to sprout. The label on Parsley as an example advises the seeds to be placed in the freezer for a few weeks, for quicker germination. The reason for this is to simulate stratification, but you can force these earlier in containers outside.

Step by Step

#1 Clean containers — Wash out your jugs and discard the tops. The open-top provides an air vent for your seeds.
#2 Cut containers — If not using containers with hinged lids, stick a serrated knife into the side of the jug, lay it on its side and cut all the way around, leaving about 1.5”
#3 Create air holes — Use a sharp object to poke holes around the bottom of the container for drainage, this is very important. If you don’t make drainage holes, your seeds will drown!
#4  Add soil — Fill the bottom of the container with about 2” of soil mix. Either use regular soil from a garden center or mix it with seed potting soil, humus or homemade compost.
#5 Water the soil — with a mix of very diluted fertilizer (14-0-14), or just enough to give it some valuable nitrogen and leave the containers to drain.
#6 Seal the container — seal the cut edges of the bottle or container with light-colored duct tape. Leave the top open.
#7  Label containers — use a wooden stick that is large enough to write on and pop it into the soil, through the top of the bottle, or mark with duct tape across the container.
#8  Set out and leave! — set out the jugs in a spot that will get the winter sun. Do not leave them undercover, it is important the seeds experience all the weather conditions as they would in nature.
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InFocus – Real Christmas Trees are Recyclable

Tips from the National Christmas Tree Association.

After the holidays, don’t throw your real Christmas tree in the trash or set it on the curb. Real Christmas trees are biodegradable, which means they can be easily reused or recycled for mulch and other purposes.

Why Not Recycle Your Real Christmas Tree?

Some Recycle Ideas

Here are some recycling options and tips on what to do with your tree after the holidays. Every community is different, but in general, you have these options

  • Soil erosion barriers: Christmas trees can make effective sand and soil erosion barriers, especially for lake and river shoreline stabilization.
  • Fish feeders: Sunk into private fish ponds, trees make an excellent refuge and feeding area for fish.
  • Bird feeders: Place the Christmas tree in the garden or backyard and use it as a bird feeder and sanctuary. Fresh orange slices or strung popcorn will attract the birds and they can sit in the branches for shelter. (Make sure all decorations, hooks, garland and tinsel strands are removed). Eventually (within a year) the branches will become brittle and you can break the tree apart by hand or chip it in a chipper.
  • Mulch: A Christmas tree is biodegradable; its branches may be removed, chipped, and used as mulch in the garden.
  • Paths for hiking trails: Some counties use shredded trees as a free, renewable and natural path material that fits both the environment and the needs of hikers.
  • Living, rooted trees: Get a rooted (ball and burlap or containerized) tree and plant it in your yard. (It’s a good idea to dig the hole in the late fall while the soil is still soft, then plant the tree into that hole immediately after Christmas.) Living trees have a better survival rate in mild climates.

How to Make a Christmas Tree Bird Feeder

A Repurposed Christmas Tree Bird Feeder from Garden Answer

Important: Never burn your Christmas tree in a fireplace or wood stove.

InFocus – Grass Pavers

What Are Grass Pavers?

Grass or block pavers, or grow-through pavers—are an alternative to traditional asphalt that can be made from concrete or recycled plastic. The open cells in the paver system allow grass to grow through them making them eco-friendly. Applications include driveways, walkways, crossovers on medians, boat launching ramps, fire lanes, and even RV and boat parking lots.

Creative Grass Paver Driveway
 The example shown is the center strip of a fully functioning ribbon driveway which showcases a variety of succulents and thymes. Although a portion of the garden is necessarily hidden when the car is in residence and occasionally a flower will get decapitated when an auto pulls in, this complex assemblage of succulents provides a startling pop of beauty in a totally unexpected place!

What Are The Benefits?

    • Paver systems help to reduce stormwater runoff and filter out pollutants. Stormwater runoff on a regular pavement can pick up oil and other road pollutants and washes the toxic mess into rivers, bays, and streams.
    • Pavers also absorb water, reducing or slowing down the water that races over the pavement in a rainstorm, preventing erosion.
    • Grass pavers recharge groundwater. Those spots of grass allow rain to soak into the ground, putting it back into aquifers.
    • Through the magic of transpiration, porous pavers will keep the air around your driveway cooler!
Many Shapes and Styles

Be creative. Paver designs come in many shapes and sizes. You can even create your own design.

How to Install

Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering

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